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The Mercedes-Benz M278 engine is a V8 petrol unit with a 90 ° cylinder camber and direct cylinder injection ( CGI ). It descends from the previous member of the M273 series, sharing characteristics and features such as piston diameter, aluminum engine block and low friction cylinder liners made of aluminum and silicon. However, it uses a third-generation Bosch direct fuel injection system with piezo-electric injectors (capable of injecting fuel up to five times per stroke) and multi-spark ignition, which provides the most efficient fuel combustion (as a result, improves performance and economy). When the engine is running, the new injectors help reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise levels, and optimize cold starting. Other changes include an improved variable valve timing system (it is 35% faster and operates over a wider range), a new timing mechanism and new engine elements (such as oil, water and fuel pumps, and a generator) that reduce parasitic loads. Many of these features are in common with the V6 engines of the M276 family. Gas distribution mechanism – DOHC, four valves per cylinder.
M278 engine has a working volume of 4663 cm 3 and equipped with a dual turbocharger system (each company turbocharger Honeywell Garrett with a supercharging pressure control provides for a single row of cylinders, the air enters the cylinder pressure of 0.9 bar). Due to this, it turned out to be significantly more powerful than its predecessor. In addition, fuel consumption was reduced (by 22%) and environmental performance improved… The compact air / water cooler optimally cools the charge air and improves thermodynamic efficiency; the short distance traveled by the air stream improves the efficiency of the engine. The exhaust gas is recirculated via a metal exhaust manifold. Thanks to the quick reaction of the catalytic converter, it helps to reduce the level of harmful emissions.
The cylinder diameter is 92.9 mm, the piston stroke is 86 mm, and the cylinder pitch (distance between the axles) is 109 mm… The compression ratio is 10.5: 1 for the standard version of the power unit. The engine is equipped with a new, low-noise drive system with toothed chains; the camshaft drive chain is made up of three separate chain drives, each adjusted by one tensioner. Two camshaft adjusters are used for intake and exhaust, and an integrated pilot valve ensures optimum torque build-up even at low revs. The rigid crankcase is made of an aluminum alloy with aluminum and silicon cylinder liners. Oil nozzles are used to cool the piston crown. A compact vane oil pump is used for oil supply with demand-controlled oil quantity control and a pressure stage that can be activated based on parameters.start-stop systems, but also by optimizing the operation of the generator (with a recuperation function), as well as cooling and lubrication systems connected by a common heat exchanger. The pressure in the oil circuit is between two and four bar, depending on the load, and, if necessary, the thermostat drives the lubricant through an additional channel through the intercooler.
To reduce the mass of the engine, more compact elements of the unit are used. In addition, plastic products are used instead of aluminum and steel parts in the water circuit. The total weight of the power unit is 220 kg.
The engine power of the Mercedes-Benz M278 is 435 hp. (320 kW) at 5250 rpm with 700 Nm of torque at 1800-3500 rpm for S-, CL-, SL- and GL-classes. There are models CLS-, E- and M-classes with reduced to 408 hp. (300 kW) and 600 Nm of torque performance characteristics.