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The Toyota A-Series engines are a family of inline four-cylinder internal combustion engines with a displacement of 1.3 to 1.8 L manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation. The range has steel engine blocks and aluminium cylinder heads.
The development of the series began in the late 1970s when Toyota developed a brand new engine for the Toyota Tercel as a successor to the K engine. The aim was to achieve good fuel efficiency and performance and low emissions in a modern design. The A-Series includes the first mass-produced DOHC, four-valve-per-cylinder engine, the 4A-GE, and a later version of the same engine was one of the first production five-valves -per-cylinder engines.
About The Toyota 4AGE Engine
Spark plug wires were omitted from a 4A-GE engine from the early days. The intake system plenum and cam cover both feature the acronym 'T-VIS,' written in black and blue.
4A-GE with T-VIS
The "red top" (owing to the red writing) is the most potent 16-valve 4A-GE engine, producing 94 kW (126 horsepower; 128 PS) at 6,600 revolutions per minute.
The 4A and 2A engines were constructed at Toyota's Shimoyama plant, along with the cylinder head, established by Yamaha Motor Corporation.
Because of their high dependability and performance, these engines have attracted a large following of enthusiasts and die-hard fans who use them to power other Toyota models like the KE70 and KP61. As a result of the devoted following, new performance components are still being offered for sale today. For the 16-valve models, production lasted from May 1983 to 1991, and for the 20-valve 4A-GE, the show lasted from 1998 to the present.
The "Blue Top" as it was known in the beginning (Early Bigport)
Toyota's most prevalent twin-cam engine, the 2T-G, was replaced in 1983 by the first generation 4A-GE.
Identifying features included silver cam covers with black and blue block letters on the upper body and three reinforcement ribs running down one side of the block. It was over fifteen per cent lighter than the 2T-GEU while solid for an all-iron block production engine. In addition, it was 4 decibels quieter than the previous model. After testing, Toyota and Yamaha decided to switch the 4A-GE from a two-valve design to a four-valve one.
The 4A-output G.E.'s in the U.S. market were 84 kilowatts (112 horsepower; 114 PS) at 6,600 revolutions per minute and 13.4 kgm (131 Nm; 97 lb-ft) engine power at 4,800 rpm. The Japanese model, which makes use of a manifold absolute pressure sensor, has been rated initially at 94 kW, but its use of a vane-type air flow meter (AFM) reduced airflow slightly while producing cleaner emissions that met U.S. regulations (126 hp; 128 PS). As previously mentioned, this was only an overall rating, and Toyota later revised the engine's net power rating to reflect this. However, the higher power ratings and a lower curb weight of Japanese cars didn't make them any quicker than their American counterparts on the track.
To achieve high power output, Toyota crafted the engine with a valve angle of 50 degrees, which was considered ideal at the time.
In today's modern high-revving engines, the valve angle has been reduced to 20 to 25 degrees, which is now thought to be perfect for solid engines with a high specific power. The 4A-first G.E.'s generation intake ports had a large cross-sectional area, nickname "bigport." Even though the port cross-section had been suitable for a highly modified engine running at extremely high RPMs, the reduced airspeeds caused an enormous loss of low-end torque. The first-generation engines had the T-VIS feature, which used butterfly valves on the dual intake runners to make up for the lower airspeed. These butterfly valves opened at about 4,200 rpm. Because 4 of the eight runners are closed at lower rpm (when airspeed usualairspeedow), the engine must draw in all of its intake air through the other four runners inside the manifold. This improves cylinder filling because it increases airspeed, but iairspeedreates a swirl inside the combustion chamber, enhancing fuel atomization. This made it possible to maintain the torque curve even at low engine speeds, resulting in improved performance throughout the entire speed range and a broad, flat torque curve near the crossover point. Experiential drivers can tell when the crossover point shifts in performance due to an increase in engine speed. The initial engine model was manufactured until 1987.
The "Red & Black Top" of the Second Generation (Late Bigport)
More oversized connecting-rod big end bearings of 42 mm (1.65 in) diameter were used in the second-generation 4A-GE, which was produced from 1987 to 1988, and the engine block had seven reinforcement ribs in total. T-VIS and MAP are still available. It has a similar appearance to the very first engine (except for the black and red lettering on the upper cam cover) and has an 86 kW power output for the U.S. market (115 hp; 117 PS). Due to their availability, simplicity, ease of modification, and lightness, the 1st and 2nd engines are trendy among racers and tuners.
Red Tops of the Third Generation (Smallport)
By that time, the third generation had debuted and was still in use until 1992. This one has silver cam protectors with only the words "red top" written in red to distinguish it from other engines. Toyota boosted the pressure ratio from 9.4 to 10.3 to improve fuel efficiency. Because of its smaller cross-sectional area, this cylinder head has been dubbed the "smallport" head to address the airspeed issueairspeedious generations. The prior twin-runner intake manifold was supplanted with a solitary manifold due to the change in the intake ports. Thicker connecting rods, oil squirters beneath pistons and other modifications helped the engine last longer and ran more reliably. Other notable changes include using a 20mm (0.79 in) floating gudgeon pin instead of the older 18mm (0.71 in) fixed pins for the pistons. The pistons underwent additional alterations on the inside. They've been slightly reworked to accommodate the new engine's under-piston cooling oil squirters. The piston ring sizes were reduced from 16 to 12 valves (0.047 in) to make things more complex. Toyota reduced the second and oil rings from 15 valves to 2.8 valves (0.11 in). The first and second rings are 1.5 mm (0.0.059 in) thick, while the third ring measures 3 mm (0.12 in). All 4A-GE engines sold outside the United States came equipped with a MAP sensing element, while those sold in the United States came standard with a MAF detector. Ninety-two kilowatts (123 horsepower; 125 PS) at 7200 revs and 15.2 kgm (149 Nm; 110 lb-ft) of torque at 4800 revs were added to the US-market cars with the previous revision. Versions not sold in the United States (MAP Sensored) Add 8-10 horsepower to the engine's cylinder head.