For a long period of time, Toyota powertrains were considered the best and most reliable. According to most motorists, motors practically do not break in conditions of intensive use. One can argue with this statement, as the statistics of repairs suggests otherwise. Separate models of engines in terms of reliability do not stand out among analogues in terms of characteristics and cost. For example, Toyota 3.0 D-4D diesel turbo engine is not the most successful design and may fail at the most inopportune moment.
Some History Of The 1KD-FTV Engine
For the first time on the market, a 3-liter power unit marked 1KD-FTV appeared almost 20 years ago, in 2000. The manufacturer was one of the first to install a Common Rail fuel system on a large-volume turbocharged engine. For the concern, Delphi developed the injection module.
The installation of such power units was carried out on Toyota full-size SUVs. The first 1KD-FTV engine was installed into the Land Cruiser Prado 120, after some time the engines began to be installed on the Prado 150. The manufacturer was not limited to two models.
At different times, the power units 3.0 D-4D were mounted on pickups and other Toyota models, for example, Hilux, 4Runner, Fortuner. Vehicles with such engines were exported to many countries on all world continents. With the development of technology, 1KD-FTV engines gave way to GD power units, whose working volume was 2.4 or 2.8 liters.
Structurally, the cylinder block of the power unit of this modification consists entirely of cast iron. A distinctive feature of the motor is the absence of sleeves. As pistons, all-aluminum elements are used. The piston skirts are rubber coated. The 1KD-FTV motor includes 2 balancer shafts. The crankshaft with counterweights is responsible for the movement of the balancers, the moment is transmitted using a gear drive.
An aluminum alloy was also used to produce the cylinder head. The cylinder head includes two camshafts, 4 valves are provided for each cylinder. One of the features of the motor is the lack of hydraulic lifters. Thermal clearances are regulated using plate-type pushers.
Another feature of the motor is the presence of a timing drive of a non-standard design. The structure of the unit includes a gear transmission, two balancing shafts, a high-pressure fuel pump and an oil pump. The timing belt drives the intake and exhaust shafts with the help of reliable and durable mechanisms. At the same time, the belt must be replaced at least every 100 thousand kilometers. To control the mileage, a special counter is installed that informs the driver about the need for maintenance.
On Toyota vehicles with such an engine, a CT16V brand turbocharger is installed. The technical characteristics of the module allow air to be pumped up to 1.1 bar. To cool the incoming air flow, an intercooler is used, which is installed under the plastic cover of the motor. The 1KD-FTV engines are made in accordance with Euro-3 and more. The engine includes an exhaust gas recirculation system marked EGR.
What problems may Toyota owners face with a 1KD-FTV engine?
The reliability of Toyota engines has always been considered one of the brand’s strengths. At the same time, almost every model has typical flaws. For motors with the 1KD-FTV index, manufactured in accordance with the Euro-4 standard, the problem may appear in the form of cracking of the pistons.
For Toyota 3.0 D-4D engines manufactured from 2000 to 2003 (marking 30020-30060), this problem is not relevant. With intensive use, the pistons fully fulfill the resource. After modernization at the end of 2003, cases of piston cracking began to occur. At risk were 1KD-FTV motors with a capacity of up to 172 horsepower and a torque of 410 Nm.
Since 2004, modified pistons with a modified shape of the combustion chamber have been installed on the power units of this brand. For motors with an index of 30090 manufactured before August 2006, the problem of cracking is not common. Powertrains 30150 manufactured before June 2009 are the most prone to this problem.
Toyota, after identifying a defect, has taken measures to finalize the 1KD-FTV engines. At the end of 2010, engines with a modified piston group began to be installed on Toyota Euro-5 vehicles. Owners of vehicles with powertrains 13101-30170 did not inform the manufacturer about a similar problem. At the same time, on piston engines, pistons were replaced for parts with the index 13101-30-200.
Cracks in the pistons of the Toyota 3.0 D-4 D engine (1 KD- FTV) Image Source: https://toyota-club.net/files/faq/15-10-20_faq_kd-piston_eng.htm
The unsuccessful design of the piston group is explained by the excessive brittleness of the alloy. A crack on the working element most often appeared during prolonged use, especially at high speed and in the summer heat. If the owner tried to tune the power unit, the piston resource of the problem engines also decreased significantly. Toyota did not give up on the problem and took all necessary measures to resolve it.
Signs of piston cracking were difficult to confuse with other failures. On a run from 100 to 150 thousand kilometers, a metal knock appeared, accompanied by thick black smoke from the exhaust pipe. Motor power dropped significantly, excessive crankcase gas was generated. For diagnosis, it was necessary to open the power unit.
Solution To Cracking Pistons
The simplest solution to this problem is to replace the cracked piston with an new unit. If pieces of metal break away from the working unit, you will have to repair or completely replace the unit. Diesel Land Cruiser Prado 120 was in great demand in the UK and Australia, so the percentage of calls to service centers due to cracking pistons in these countries is traditionally high.
Other 1KD-FTV Engine Problems
Burn out Of O Rings
In addition to the appearance of piston cracks, the 3.0 D-4D motors have other disadvantages. One of the typical malfunctions is the burn-out of o-rings made of copper and mounted on fuel nozzles. Owners pay attention to such a defect when white smoke appears at the time of starting the engine. At the same time, the engine starts to crash and noise. Burnt washers do not ensure the tightness of the system, oil enters the combustion chambers when the engine is stopped. Also, grease can enter the nozzle valves and the space under the valve cover.
The quality of diesel fuel affects the performance of Delphi injectors installed in 1KD-FTV engines. With the constant use of a combustible mixture that does not meet the standards, nozzles fail at a distance of 100 to 120 thousand kilometers.
Another defect in engines manufactured before 2010 is the periodic indication of the critical oil level. Error P0524 is software. Repair of the power unit is not required. To eliminate the defect, it is necessary to reflash the control unit. For this you need to provide a car to a service center.
EGR Valve Problems
In addition to these, the power units 1KD-FTV have a few more minor flaws. Reliability and durability of the EGR valve is not good, but for its effective operation it is necessary to periodically clean the intercooler and the intake manifold. This procedure is carried out every 60 thousand kilometers. With a large amount of oil on the valve, it is advisable to check the fuel system and compressor.
Subject to the maintenance schedule, proper care, the Toyota 3.0 D-4D engine able to work 400 thousand kilometers or more without repairs. Compared with previous versions, the motor has more power and efficiency.